Framework in North America

United States    California | Minnesota | OregonWashington
Canada    Canada-wide EPR Framework | British Columbia | Manitoba | Ontario 

Framework EPR in the United States


Framework efforts in California have been undertaken by both the California Integrated Waste Management Board (CIWMB) and the California Product Stewardship Council (CPSC). The CPSC has assisted and provided comment to the board and has also held product specific workshops.
  • Following a decision by the Department of Toxic Substances Control (DTSC) in 2006 to remove the hazardous waste exemption on household hazardous wastes thus banning them from disposal, then a ban on sharps disposal in September 2008, local governments are increasingly interested in a producer responsibility framework to address the increase in management costs.
  • In February 2007 CIWMB adopted Strategic Direction 5 that signals a commitment to promote producer responsibility in the state.
  • In June 2007, heard a contractor’s report titled Framework for Evaluating End of Life Management Systems in California by R3 Consulting Group which recommended implementation of an EPR Policy Framework.
  • CIWMB issued an Overall Framework for an Extended Producer Responsibility System in California in September 2007 and further refined in January 2008 that outlines staff recommendations for an approach to producer responsibility. The board has held several public workshops on the framework as well as specific products.
  • CIWMB may seek legislative authorization for the framework approach during the 2009 legislative session and legislation may also be introduced by legislators in response to requests by the California Product Stewardship Council. Product specific legislation following the framework approach is also anticipated. CIWMB documents related to specific agency legislation is not publicly available.




Framework efforts have been undertaken by the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency (MPCA).
  •  Minnesota passed EPR legislation for electronics in 2007.
  • In 2008, the Minnesota legislature passed legislation requiring the Agency to develop a report and recommendations on a framework approach to product stewardship (see study bill example above). The product stewardship recommendations report was submitted to the Legislature on January 15, 2009. As part of the report’s development, the MPCA hosted two public meetings to solicit input on several concepts and questions pertaining to the product stewardship study and recommendations report. In addition, the MPCA met with individual stakeholder groups.
  • Framework legislation and/or product specific legislation following a framework approach may be introduced in the 2009 session.



The Oregon Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) and Metro Portland are members of the Northwest Product Stewardship Council and have been active in developing the framework principles and early model framework legislation drafts, in coordination with efforts in the state of Washington.
  • Oregon passed EPR legislation for electronics in 2007. 
  • A legislative concept was approved by the Environmental Quality Commission at its meeting in May 2008. The DEQ issued a draft framework proposal in September 2008 and has held three public meetings seeking input.
  • DEQ is now drafting a proposal for a producer responsibility framework for potential legislative consideration in 2009, coordinating with the work in the state of Washington.
  • Framework legislation is anticipated in Oregon in the 2009 session as well as product specific legislation following the EPR formula.


  • Oregon’s HB3060, introduced February 27, 2009.  The Product Stewardship framework bill names mercury-containing lights and rechargeable batteries as initial product areas, and designates the state Environmental Quality Commission to adopt recommendations to the legislative body for future products.   A companion bill is expected to be introduced in the Senate.
  • Oregon has produced excellent background documents, some of which explore key issues and policy options. They can be found at


Many local governments and Department of Ecology are members of the Northwest Product Stewardship Council (NWPSC) and have been have been active in developing framework principles and early model framework legislation drafts. The framework approach to EPR has been incorporated into the State’s climate change efforts. Washington is working closely with Oregon and coordinating with other states.
  • Washington passed EPR legislation for electronics in 2006.
  • In 2007, the Governor’s Climate Advisory Team included product stewardship framework policy as an element in one of its most promising strategies for addressing greenhouse gases.
  • This team was reconstituted as the CAT (Climate Action Team) in 2008. The BWIWG (Beyond Waste Implementation Work Group) serving the CAT was tasked with developing and recommending framework legislation for product stewardship. Utilizing and refining work done by the NWPSC, they developed model framework EPR legislation, and provided an adapted draft showing a product by product approach with fluorescent lighting used as the sample product. These drafts were accepted by the CAT and forwarded on to the Governor, state agencies, and the legislature through the CAT’s reports.


      Word versions are available through the Product Policy Institute.


HB 1718 – Reducing greenhouse gases in Washington. Framework legislation was introduced in the January 27, 2009 as part of an omnibus greenhouse gas emission reduction bill. The framework names five initial product areas (carpet, mercury-containing-lighting, mercury-containing thermostats, paint, and rechargeable batteries) and delegates future product designation to the Department of Ecology. See sections 318 through 360 of HB 1718. The omnibus bill did not pass out of committee.

Framework EPR in Canada

(The summary below was primarily excerpted from the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency Product Stewardship Recommendations report [January 2009] posted at

Canada-Wide Action Plan for EPR

The Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) EPR Task Group released for public comment a Proposed Canada-wide Action Plan for Extended Producer Responsibility on February 18, 2009, with Packaging Stewardship as the first priority. This is effectively a federal policy for Framework EPR. The group previously developed a product priority setting tool and recommendations for EPR program evaluation. 


British Columbia

British Columbia has been the North American leader in establishing and implementing a flexible stewardship framework. Adopted in 2004, British Columbia’s “Recycling Regulation” is the model for framework EPR legislation for several US states.
  • Authorized by the statutory Environmental Management Act, the province has implemented a variety of stewardship programs, beginning with a regulation for managing leftover paint in 1994 with other regulations implemented soon thereafter.
  • The province currently has stewardship programs in place for nine product categories: beverage containers; tires; used oil; electronics; paint; solvents and flammable liquids; gasoline; pesticides; and pharmaceuticals.



  • The Waste Reduction and Prevention Act (WRAP) enacted in 1994 provides the statutory support for product stewardship regulations in Manitoba. The first stewardship program to move forward in the province assessed a two-cent levy on beverage containers to finance the collection and recycling of “blue box” materials.
  • The province is moving forward with a suite of product stewardship regulations under the WRAP Act to address household hazardous waste, packaging and printed paper, and waste electronics.


  • The Waste Diversion Act, passed by the Parliament in Ontario in 2002, authorized the Minister of the Environment to designate products or materials for a stewardship program through a Program Request Letter that outlines the details required. Following the program request letter, the industry funding organization prepares a stewardship plan.
  • Program Request Letters have been issued for blue box waste (2004), municipal hazardous or special waste (2007), waste electronics (2006), and used tires (2008).